Mary Keogh1; 1 IFZO, University of Greifswald, Germany
This paper explores the geopolitics of transnational offshore renewable energy infrastructures in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Energy systems are currently undergoing systemic transformation. Shortages following the Russia invasion of Ukraine are contributing to an accelerated energy transition, with policy increasingly emphasizing specifically transnational offshore projects that complement the EU-led agenda for a common regional energy market. Yet there has been limited translation of proposals to concrete projects.
This paper examines the geopolitical opportunities for and obstacles to transnational renewable offshore infrastructures in the BSR. It begins with a brief exposition of the current energy situation before considering recent policy developments in transnational offshore projects. Using an energeopolitical framework, it then explores patterns of conflict and collaboration that facilitate and obstruct these developments, including energy diplomacy, convergent and divergent policy and norms, relations with external suppliers, and the broader maritime geopolitics of the Baltic Sea. In assessing the geopolitical factors impeding and facilitating the development of transnational offshore renewable infrastructures, the paper positions energy transformation in the BSR as a site from which we can theorise offshore energy transformations and their place in integrated energy markets.