DiscussionWe have set up an individualized systems medicine (ISM) programme to facilitate implementation of precision medicine. A proof of concept study was recently published in AML (Pemovska et al., Cancer Discov. 2013 Dec;3(12):1416-29). We are now expanding the programme to include other hematological cancers and progenitor cell cultures from solid tumors. The ISM strategy as implemented in AML is composed of DNA/RNA sequencing as well as phosphoproteomic profiling of patient cells, determination of ex-vivo cancer drug sensitivity testing to >300 drugs, and translation of key findings to the clinic in the form of individualized therapy suggestions. This systems medicine programme provides an opportunity for continuous “real-time” adjustment of cancer therapies for individual patients.